What tilly and tarrow contentious politics pdf unconventional political participation? Education, voting, participation in civil society organizations, and government dissatisfaction drive protest actions.
The influence of macro-level factors differs between various forms of protest actions. There is little evidence on the factors that drive peaceful unconventional political participation. Participation in all three protest activities hinges on education, voting, participation in civil society organizations, and lack of satisfaction with the government. Moreover, the influence of some macro-factors, such as democratic experience and economic development, and micro-level factors, such as gender differs between the three forms of political engagement.