This article is about the Roman dictator. Caesar made julius ceasar full text pdf his lifetime. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome.
Caesar’s victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.
Little is recorded of Caesar’s childhood. Caesar was the head of the family at 16. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Following Sulla’s final victory, though, Caesar’s connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife’s dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding.
Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. Nicomedes’ court that rumours arose of an affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life. Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career, as the high priest of Jupiter was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army. Hearing of Sulla’s death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. He turned to legal advocacy and became known for his exceptional oratory accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity.
After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. Marius in the funeral procession, unseen since the days of Sulla. His wife Cornelia also died that year.
Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. He ran against two powerful senators. Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents’ greater experience and standing. Caesar of involvement in the plot.
He was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen.
He could not do both in the time available. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. In 60 BC, Caesar sought election as consul for 59 BC, along with two other candidates. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. The three of them had enough money and political influence to control public business.
Caesar proposed a law for redistributing public lands to the poor—by force of arms, if need be—a proposal supported by Pompey and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate’s opponents. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar’s armed supporters. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts proved ineffective in obstructing Caesar’s legislation. The term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one.