Unsourced forged by fire pdf download may be challenged and removed. The slack tub also provides water to control the fire in the forge. The designs of these forges have varied over time, but whether the fuel is coal, coke or charcoal the basic design has remained the same.
Hearth—a place where the burning fuel can be contained over or against the tuyere opening. During operation, fuel is placed in or on the hearth and ignited. Often this involves adjusting and maintaining the shape of the fire. In a typical coal forge, a firepot will be centered in a flat hearth. The tuyere will enter the firepot at the bottom. In operation, the hot core of the fire will be a ball of burning coke in and above the firepot. The heart of the fire will be surrounded by a layer of hot but not burning coke.
Around the unburnt coke will be a transitional layer of coal being transformed into coke by the heat of the fire. Surrounding all is a ring or horseshoe-shaped layer of raw coal, usually kept damp and tightly packed to maintain the shape of the fire’s heart and to keep the coal from burning directly so that it “cooks” into coke first. If a larger fire is necessary, the smith increases the air flowing into the fire as well as feeding and deepening the coke heart. The smith can also adjust the length and width of the fire in such a forge to accommodate different shapes of work. The major variation from the forge and fire just described is a ‘back draft’ where there is no fire pot, and the tuyere enters the hearth horizontally from the back wall.
Individual smiths and specialized applications have fostered development of a variety of forges of this type, from the coal forge described above, to simpler constructions amounting to a hole in the ground with a pipe leading into it. One common, efficient design uses a cylindrical forge chamber and a burner tube mounted at a right angle to the body. The burner mixes fuel and air which are ignited at the tip, which protrudes a short way into the chamber lining. The primary advantage of a gas forge is ease of use, particularly for a novice. A gas forge is simple to operate compared to coal forges, and the fire produced is clean and consistent.
It is also difficult to heat a small section of a piece. The anvil serves as a work bench to the blacksmith, where the metal to be forged is placed. Anvils may seem clunky and heavy, but they are a highly refined tool carefully shaped to suit a blacksmith’s needs. Anvils are made of cast or wrought iron with a tool steel face welded on or of a single piece of cast or forged tool steel.
Some anvils are made of only cast iron, and have no tool steel face. These are not real anvils, and will not serve a blacksmith as such because they are too soft. A common term for a cast iron anvil is “ASO” or “Anvil Shaped Object”. The purpose of a tool steel face on an anvil is to provide what some call “Rebound” as well as being hard and not denting easily from misplaced hammer blows.
The term rebound means it projects some of the force of the blacksmith’s hammer blows back into the metal thus moving more metal at once than if there were no rebound. The square hole is called the hardy hole, where the square shank of the hardy tool fits. There are many different kinds of hardy tools. The smaller hole is called the pritchel hole, used as a bolster when punching holes in hot metal, or to hold tools similar to how the hardy tool does, but for tools that require being able to turn a 360 degree angle such as a hold down tool for when the blacksmith’s tongs cannot hold a workpiece as securely as it needs to be. On the front of the anvil there is sometimes a “horn” that is used for bending, drawing out steel, and many other tasks.
Between the horn and the anvil face there is often a small area called a “step” or a “cutting table” That is used for cutting hot or cold steel with chisels, and hot cut tools without harming the anvil’s face. Marks on the face transfer into imperfections in the blacksmith’s work. There are many types of hammer used in a blacksmith’s workshop but this will name just a few common ones. Hammers can range in shape and weight from a half an ounce to nearly 30 pounds depending on the type of work being done with it. They are hardened and tempered at the cutting edge while the head is left soft so it will not crack when hammered. Chisels are of two types, hot and cold chisels. The cold chisel is used for cutting cold metals while the hot chisel is for hot metals.
Usually hot chisels are thinner and therefore can not be substituted with cold chisels. Also many smiths shape chisels as to have a simple twisted handle as to resemble a hammer, they can be used at a greater distance away from the hot metals. They are very useful and found throughout the world. Tongs are used by the blacksmith for holding hot metals securely. There are various types of tongs available in market. Fullers are forming tools of different shapes used in making grooves or hollows. They are often used in pairs, the bottom fuller has a square shank which fits into the hardy hole in the anvil while the top fuller has a handle.