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United States to escape Nazi persecution, is an example of human capital flight as a result of political change. Research shows that there are significant economic benefits of human capital flight both for the migrants themselves and those who remain in the country of origin. It has been found that emigration of skilled individuals to the developing world contributes to greater education and innovation in the developing world. Research also suggests that emigration, remittances and return migration can have a positive impact on democratization and the quality political institutions in the country of origin. Claims of a “brain drain” remain largely unsupported in academic research, with some scholars describing it as a “myth”. The flight of talented, creative, and highly qualified employees from large corporations that occurs when employees perceive the direction and leadership of the company to be unstable or stagnant, and thus, unable to keep up with their personal and professional ambitions. The flight of highly trained individuals and college graduates from their area of residence.
The movement of traditionally skilled workers from one sector of an industry to another. Another source indicates that this term was first used in the United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientists and engineers. Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into “the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions”. Given that the term brain drain is a pejorative and infers that skilled emigration is bad for the country of origin, some scholars recommend against using the term in favor of more neutral and scientific terms.
After all, research indicates that there may be net human capital gains, a “brain gain”, for the sending country in opportunities for emigration. The positive effects of human capital flight are sometimes referred to as “brain gain” whereas the negative effects are sometimes referred to as “brain drain”. The notion of the “brain drain” is largely unsupported in the academic literature. According to development economist Justin Sandefur, “there is no study out there showing any empirical evidence that migration restrictions have contributed to development. Hein de Haas, Professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam, describes the brain drain as a “myth”. However, according to Catholic University of Louvain economist Frederic Docquier, human capital flight has an adverse impact on most developing countries, even if it can be beneficial for some developing countries.